Foreign Office

South America and the power of steam

The independence of South America bought an influx of opportunities for commerce and investment from Europe and North America. Everyone wanted a piece of the newly opened continent. Merchants, industrialists, and entrepreneurs arrived to make their fortunes.
Why could South America not follow European and North American railway expansion to modernise the infrastructure and open access to the remote country?

History’s Unparalleled Alliance: the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Windsor, 9th May 1386

  Winston Churchill in a speech in the House of Commons in October 1943 famously described the unique and ancient friendship between England and Portugal as an alliance “without parallel in world history”.[1] It is 630 years since a treaty …